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Av Prof. Moraes Rêgo 1235, Cidade Universitária, Recife, 50670-901 PE, Brasil
+55 81 2126 8300
Licenciatura em Música. Studies include performance, music history, Brazilian music, Orff methodology, choral and instrumental conducting, music technology, music education. For teaching music in schools.
Advanced program in conducting for talented performers.
A federal university founded in 1946. The music department houses two reseach institutes - computer-generated sound, and ethnomusicology. There are also laboratories for music technology and for multimedia. The junior department provides music instruction to young children from age 7, using Orff instruments and recorder; after the first year an orchestral instrument may be chosen. A diploma is issued on completion of the course. Scholarships are available for talented but needy students.
In this country of 27 States and the Federal District of Brasilia it is virtually impossible to make general statements to cover the ranges and types of music education provided. Nonetheless the following presents a fairly consistent pattern appearing in music education in schools and professional music training at the higher education level. Throughout the entry the name of the country has been spelt ‘Brasil’ in accordance with the Portuguese practice. INITIAL MUSIC TRAINING. The most reliable way for parents to obtain music education for their children in Brazil is either to obtain the services of a private teacher or to enrol the child in the junior department of one of the many conservatories or universities for an introductory course in music (initiação musical). Such courses tend to fall into a pattern of a one-year general introduction to music through voice games, development of rhythmic sense and of pitch concepts before the child chooses an instrument. Thereafter this pre-professional program may fall into two stages, roughly corresponding to the primary and secondary schooling which is being taken concurrently. MUSIC FOR SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN. Elementary schools in Brazil are required to provide ‘artistic education’ for their pupils and teachers are nominally trained to teach all of visual art, drama, craft and music, as well as all other subjects of the school curriculum. In practice it is rare for primary school teachers to give effective music training in schools since the amount of time spent on music in the training program is minimal, and art, craft and drama are often taught in preference to the more troublesome music area. Since 1996 educational guidelines for all subjects were developed out of the new Educational Law – LDB (Lei de Diretrizes e Bases de Educação). Nowadays there are government guidelines establishing that each art form (music, drama, visual arts and dance) should be taught in regular schools. TRAINING FOR PROFESSIONAL MUSICIANS. Professional level (i.e. university level) programs in music begin after completion of secondary schooling. Student applicants are required to pass the general examination for entry to a university (the ‘Vestibular’, involving papers in Portuguese, geography, history, social studies, Brazilian studies, foreign language, mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology), and also to satisfactorily present for audition and tests of aural perception and general musical knowledge. Completion of the university program leads to either the • Bacharelado em Música , with specialisation in any one of performance, composition or conducting. This is roughly equivalent to a Bachelor’s degree, or the • Licenciatura em Música. This is required for all who wish to become registered teachers of music in schools. The Bacharelado in performance is a four-year program, while that in composition or conducting is currently either five or six years. The Licenciatura to teach music at primary schools may be obtained in four or five years. The Federal Ministry of Education sets out the main areas of study to be taken for both Bacharelado and Licenciatura, but institutions are free to develop these and other optional areas according to the interests and expertise of their staff. The total number of contact hours required in each area of study is centrally fixed, and institutions are free to condense or extend the total length of the course according to their local circumstances, provided the total hours are adhered to. Brazil has 43 undergraduate courses in music and seven post-graduate programs (in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Salvador, Goiânia, Minas Gerais and two in São Paulo), offering Master’s degrees in music (Mestrado em Música), and four of them have PhDs in Music (Doutorado em Música). A network of federally-funded universities (Universidades Federais), many with music departments, and some of which have more than one campus within the one State, provide professional music training. Some States also have state-funded universities (Universidades Estaduais) with music departments. A few private universities also teach music. Peculiar to Brazil and occurring mostly in the State of São Paulo, is the independent institution known as a Faculdade. Officially recognized as providing equivalent level training to a university music department, the faculdade is like a one (or two)-faculty university - similar to a ‘University of the Arts’ in some other countries. Some faculdades offer music only; others include visual arts, drama, dance and the like. There are a large number of (mostly) private conservatories and music schools providing initial music training to both young children and interested adults. Since most of these act as preparatory schools for professional music courses offered at universities and faculdades they have not been included. Information supplied by Liane Hentsche. Centro de Documentação de Música Contemporânea. This Centre, founded in 1989, promotes new music from Brazil and abroad, working in close collaboration with the Centre Documentaire de Musique Contemporaine (CDMC) in France. It holds a library of scores and sound recordings and has a comprehensive online database. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6136, CEP 13083-970, Campinas SP, Brazil. Tel +55 19 3788 6533 Fax +55 19 3788 6533 The Centro de Documentação is a member of the International Association of Music Information Centres.